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Medical Conditions

  • Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is not the same virus as SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. Canine coronavirus disease, known as CCoV, is a highly infectious intestinal infection in dogs, especially puppies. CCoV does not affect people, and causes gastrointestinal problems as opposed to respiratory disease. Crowding and unsanitary conditions lead to coronavirus transmission. Dogs may be carriers of the disease for up to six months (180 days) after infection. The most typical sign associated with canine coronavirus is diarrhea, typically sudden in onset, which may be accompanied by lethargy and decreased appetite. There is no specific treatment for coronavirus. Canine coronavirus vaccines are available. This vaccine will only work for the CCoV type of coronavirus.

  • Canine influenza virus (CIV) is primarily the result of two influenza strains: H3N8 from an equine origin and H3N2 from an avian origin. Both of these strains were previously known to infect species other than dogs, but are now able to infect and spread among dogs. The canine influenza virus is easy to transmit.

  • Cardiomyopathy is a term used to describe diseases of the heart muscle. In cats, three classes of cardiomyopathy have been described: hypertrophic, dilated, and intermediate or restrictive cardiomyopathy. In the early stages of disease, the cat may not show any signs of disease. This is referred to as compensated heart disease. Often cats will alter their activity levels to those that they can cope with, which makes it difficult to diagnose cardiomyopathy until it is quite advanced. Diagnosis of heart disease can be suspected based on clinical signs, chest X-rays, and electrocardiography (ECG). In cases where an underlying cause of the heart disease is found, then treatment of this condition may result in improvement or reversal of the heart disease. The long-term prognosis for a cat with cardiomyopathy is extremely variable, depending on the cause of this disease.

  • Carpal hyperextension is an abnormality of the carpus (wrist) that causes hyperextension of the joint. Carpal hyperextension in cats is typically caused by trauma. Cats can also develop carpal hyperextension in association with other systemic diseases (e.g., inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus). Cats with carpal hyperextension have a noticeable bend at the wrist, forcing their lower limb into an abnormally flattened position. If carpal hyperextension is caused by trauma, it may also be associated with pain and swelling. A tentative diagnosis of carpal hyperextension can be made based on initial observation, but a thorough physical examination is necessary because cats with carpal hyperextension may also have abnormalities in other joints. Treatment of carpal hyperextension depends upon the severity of the condition.

  • Carpal hyperextension is an abnormality of the carpus that causes hyperextension of the joint. There are many causes of carpal hyperextension: in young dogs, it may be caused by a developmental abnormality, it can be caused by trauma, and in older dogs, it may occur as a degenerative condition. Dogs with carpal hyperextension have a noticeable bend at the wrist, forcing their lower limb into an abnormally flattened position. If carpal hyperextension is caused by trauma, it may also be associated with pain and swelling. A tentative diagnosis of carpal hyperextension can be made based on initial observation, but a thorough physical examination is necessary because dogs with carpal hyperextension may also have abnormalities in other joints. Treatment of carpal hyperextension depends upon the severity of the condition.

  • Carpal laxity is a condition in which the carpus has an abnormal or excessive range of motion. Carpal laxity can show up in one of two ways: carpal hyperextension or carpal flexion. The underlying cause of carpal laxity has not been definitively determined but may be caused by nutritional factors, genetic factors, and being raised on slippery flooring surfaces. Signs of carpal laxity may be seen at any time from 6 weeks of age onward, but the condition is most commonly noted between three and six months of age. Activity modification is often recommended for affected kittens by keeping them off slippery surfaces. Most kittens with carpal laxity will appear completely normal within six to eight weeks.

  • Carpal laxity is a condition in which the carpus has an abnormal or excessive range of motion. Carpal laxity can show up in one of two ways: carpal hyperextension or carpal flexion. The underlying cause of carpal laxity has not been definitively determined but may be caused by nutritional factors (specifically excessive caloric intake and/or excessive calcium intake), genetic factors, and being raised on slippery flooring surfaces. Signs of carpal laxity may be seen at any time from 6 weeks of age onward, but the condition is most commonly noted between three and six months of age. Activity modification is often recommended for affected puppies by keeping them off slippery surfaces. Most puppies with carpal laxity will appear completely normal within six to eight weeks.

  • House soiling in cats, also called feline inappropriate elimination, is the most common behavioral complaint of cat owners. Problem behaviors can be urine and/or stool deposited outside of the litter box, or marking behaviors.

  • A cataract is an increase in the opacity of the lens of the eye. There are many potential causes of cataracts because any type of damage to the lens can lead to a cataract. The clinical signs of cataracts vary significantly, depending on the size of the cataract; many cataracts are asymptomatic at the time they are diagnosed during a veterinary exam. The ideal treatment for cataracts is surgery, but not all cats are candidates for surgical treatment. In these cases, anti-inflammatory medications may be used to prevent glaucoma and other secondary complications of cataracts.

  • Inside the eye is a lens that focuses light on the back of the eye, or retina. Vision occurs at the retina. The structure of the eye is similar to a camera, which has a lens to focus light on the film. A cloudy or opaque lens is called a cataract.

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